In the first part of the presentation, some aspects of formal graph language theory are discussed. A few variants of graph grammars were introduced in the early 1970s as generalizations of Chomsky grammars. This first step into a formal graph language theory was further developed by the investigation of edge and hyperedge replacement on one hand and on some variants of node replacement on the other hand starting in the late 1970s. Since then, a good number of structural and decidability properties were proved. In particular, it turned out that hyperedge replacement grammars behave to a large degree in a context-free manner. In the second part of the presentation, the novel approach of fusion grammars is surveyed.
A fusion grammar is a hypergraph grammar which provides a start hypergraph of small connected components. To derive hypergraphs, connected components can be copied multiple times and can be fused by the application of fusion rules (where such an application removes two complementary hyperedges and merges their attachment vertices). The generated hypergraph language contains all terminal connected components of derived hypergraphs. The main results for various kinds of fusion grammars concern their generative power.